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Foundation-level questions and answers on web accessibility

What is web accessibility?

Web accessibility refers to the inclusive design and development of websites, web applications, and digital content to ensure they are usable and perceivable by everyone, including people with disabilities.

How can developers ensure proper keyboard navigation in web applications?

Developers can ensure keyboard navigation by using semantic HTML, managing focus appropriately, providing focus indicators, supporting keyboard shortcuts, and testing the entire application using a keyboard alone to identify and resolve navigation issues.

What role does semantic HTML play in web accessibility?

Semantic HTML, such as using appropriate tags like headings, lists, and landmarks, enhances the structure and meaning of content. It aids screen readers in conveying information accurately and ensures a more accessible and meaningful experience for all users.

How can developers make dynamic content accessible, especially in single-page applications (SPAs)?

Developers can make dynamic content accessible in SPAs by using ARIA roles and attributes, updating ARIA live regions to inform users of dynamic changes, ensuring keyboard focus is managed correctly, and testing with screen readers and other assistive technologies.

What techniques can be employed to improve the accessibility of images on a website?

To improve image accessibility, developers can provide descriptive alternative text (alt text), use ARIA attributes, when necessary, ensure decorative images are marked appropriately, and implement responsive images with appropriate contrast for low-vision users.

How can developers address colour contrast issues to meet accessibility standards?

Developers can address colour contrast issues using tools like WCAG colour contrast checkers, ensuring a minimum contrast ratio between text and background, avoiding colour as the only means of conveying information, and testing colour combinations for accessibility.

What role does ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) play in enhancing the accessibility of complex user interfaces?

ARIA provides additional information to assistive technologies about dynamic content’s roles, states, and properties. It helps convey the structure and behaviour of complex user interfaces, making them more understandable for users with disabilities.

How can developers ensure accessibility in responsive web design?

Developers can ensure accessibility in responsive design by using a mobile-first approach, implementing flexible layouts and images, providing meaningful text alternatives for media, testing across various devices and screen sizes, and optimizing touch interactions.

What techniques can be applied to ensure video and audio content are accessible to all users?

To ensure accessibility of multimedia content, developers can provide captions and transcripts for videos, implement audio descriptions for visual content, use ARIA roles for custom media players, and ensure controls are accessible via keyboard.

How does automated testing contribute to web accessibility, and what are its limitations?

Automated testing tools help identify common accessibility issues quickly. However, they have limitations and may not catch all problems, so manual testing with assistive technologies is essential for a comprehensive assessment.

What role does focus management play in creating an accessible user interface?

Focus management ensures keyboard users can navigate and interact with the interface effectively. Developers should manage focus programmatically, avoid trapping users, and ensure that focus changes are communicated clearly to all users.

How can organizations integrate accessibility into continuous integration and deployment (CI/CD) processes?

Organizations can integrate accessibility into CI/CD processes by incorporating automated accessibility testing into the build pipeline, setting up accessibility checks for code reviews, and training developers on accessibility best practices.

Advanced-level questions and answers on website accessibility

What are the key considerations when implementing accessible forms on a website?

When implementing accessible forms, consider providing clear labels, associating labels with form controls, ensuring logical tab order, using proper fieldsets and legends for grouping, and implementing error handling with descriptive messages for screen reader users.

How can developers ensure proper keyboard navigation in web applications?

Developers can ensure keyboard navigation by using semantic HTML, managing focus appropriately, providing focus indicators, supporting keyboard shortcuts, and testing the entire application using a keyboard alone to identify and resolve navigation issues.

What role does semantic HTML play in web accessibility?

Web accessibility benefits a diverse range of users, including people with visual, auditory, cognitive, and motor impairments. It also aids older individuals and those using different devices or assistive technologies.

What are the fundamental principles of web accessibility?

Web accessibility is guided by four core principles known as POUR:

  • Perceivable: Information and user interface components must be presented in a way that users can perceive.
  • Operable: Users must be able to navigate and interact with the interface.
  • Understandable: Information and operation of the user interface must be clear and straightforward.
  • Robust: Content must be compatible with current and future technologies, ensuring sustainability.

What is WCAG, and how does it relate to web accessibility?

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) is a set of international standards developed by the W3C. WCAG provides a framework for creating accessible web content, offering guidelines and success criteria to make digital experiences more inclusive.

How are disabilities considered in web accessibility?

Web accessibility addresses various disabilities, including but not limited to visual, auditory, cognitive, and motor impairments. Design considerations and assistive technologies help accommodate diverse user needs.

What are some common barriers to web accessibility?

Common barriers include a lack of text alternatives for non-text content, inaccessible forms and controls, poor colour contrast, and insufficient keyboard navigation. Addressing these barriers enhances overall accessibility.

How can developers ensure web accessibility?

Developers can ensure web accessibility by following WCAG guidelines, using semantic HTML, providing text alternatives, ensuring keyboard navigation, testing with assistive technologies, and conducting regular accessibility audits.

What is ARIA, and how does it enhance accessibility?

Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) is a set of attributes that enhance the accessibility of dynamic content and web applications. ARIA helps convey additional information to assistive technologies, making complex interactions more understandable.

How can organizations promote a culture of web accessibility?

Organizations can promote web accessibility by incorporating accessibility into development processes, training developers, conducting regular accessibility assessments, and fostering awareness among all team members.

Is web accessibility only about compliance?

While legal compliance is essential, web accessibility goes beyond regulations. It is a commitment to inclusivity, user experience, and ensuring that digital content is usable by everyone, regardless of ability.

What resources are available for learning more about web accessibility?

Resources include the W3C WAI website, Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG), online courses, tutorials, and community forums. Platforms like Udacity and Coursera also offer specialized courses on web accessibility.

Questions on CX Score Accessibility Platform

How does CX Score software address the challenges related to WCAG criteria that involve visual and human interaction?

CX Score software tackles challenges associated with WCAG criteria involving visual and human interaction through its core innovation, “Synthetic Users.” These Synthetic Users possess Human Cognition and Personas, enabling comprehensive Accessibility Validation at scale.

Can you elaborate on the technical capabilities of Synthetic Users in CX Score and how they contribute to Accessibility Validation at scale?

Synthetic Users in CX Score exhibit advanced technical capabilities encompassing Cognition and Personas to simulate human-like interactions with applications.


    • Perception and Understanding: Synthetic Users leverage Image Recognition and Natural Language Understanding, coupled with DOM information, to comprehend the layout, informational content, and journeys within applications.
    • Interaction: Performing actions such as clicks, hovering, scrolling, and form-filling, synthetic users can reveal new virtual pages and navigate through applications.
    • Combined Perception and Interaction: Synthetic Users seamlessly integrate perception and interaction, clicking on elements, recognizing subsequent changes like modals, and adapting actions accordingly.


    • Behaviour Adjustment: Synthetic Users can adopt various Personas, mirroring user behaviour at different levels of granularity—average human, cohort, or individual user.
    • Inclusive Personas: CX Score introduces Personas reflecting impairments such as visual, auditory, cognitive, and motor, allowing testing with Assistive Technologies like Keyboard and Screen Readers.
Relevance of Cognition and Personas for Accessibility Validation at scale:

Discover and validate all visual states in a Page:

    • Synthetic Users uncover new user-visible states like Cookie pop-ups, Modals, Hover Pop-Downs, etc., validating them for Accessibility criteria.

Automate validation of Workflows:

    • Synthetic Users can log into applications and execute various workflows, journeys, or transactions, automating validation processes.

Validation of Keyboard Interaction:

    • Synthetic Users excel in validating Keyboard Interaction, covering Success Criteria like Keyboard accessibility, Focus Visibility, Focus Order, and avoiding Keyboard Traps.

Validation of Headings and Zoom:

    • Synthetic Users address Success Criteria related to Info and Relationships, Text Resize, and Reflow, covering rules such as checking Headings and planning for future enhancements like handling Horizontal scroll on Zoom.

Applications of Personas:

    • Synthetic Users map violations to WCAG Principles—Perceivable, Operable, Understandable, and Robust. They create violations with Severity, accommodating the disability spectrum, such as visual impairment in various forms.

This robust combination of Cognition and Personas in Synthetic Users ensures comprehensive Accessibility Validation for diverse use cases.

How does the JIRA integration feature in CX Score contribute to the seamless handling and resolution of accessibility defects?

The JIRA integration feature in CX Score is valuable for efficient defect resolution. CX Score facilitates smooth collaboration between teams by enabling a bi-directional, automated, and feature-rich integration with Ticketing Systems like JIRA.

Could you provide insights into the technical capabilities and functionalities of CX Score's JIRA integration, mainly focusing on minimizing MTTR (Mean Time to Resolution) and enhancing the overall defect management process?

The JIRA integration in CX Score is designed to offer a comprehensive set of capabilities to expedite defect resolution and streamline the defect management lifecycle.

Minimize MTTR with Detailed Ticket Information:

    • Rich Ticket Content: Tickets created include essential details such as a screenshot of the page with bounding boxes around elements violating accessibility standards, HTML Source, CSS Selector, Remediation Summary, Recommendations, and an Event Sequence for accessible replay.
    • Efficient Remediation: Developers can re-scan individual violations with a single click using CX Score’s DevTools, ensuring a swift remediation process.

Triage and Prioritize with Deduplication:

    • Automatic Deduplication: The integration intelligently handles elements reused within a page or across pages, creating a single Jira ticket corresponding to the root cause needing remediation. This prevents flooding developers and testers with redundant Jira tickets.

Ticket Lifecycle Management:

    • Bi-directional Integration: Allows complete lifecycle management of Jira tickets, ensuring seamless communication between CX Score and Jira.
    • Automatic Re-Test: When a developer marks the status as “feedback” after a code change, CX Score automatically re-tests individual violations.
    • Real-time Dashboard: The dashboard reflects the real-time status of Jira tickets, providing a dynamic overview of the ticket lifecycle.

This integration feature enhances the efficiency of defect resolution and contributes to the overall optimization of the accessibility validation process within the development workflow.

Can you elaborate on CX Score's approach to evaluating and enhancing the accessibility of Alt-Text for images, and what features are in development for further improvement?

CX Score employs advanced GenAI capabilities to assess Alt-Text for images, continuously focusing on refining and expanding its features for optimal accessibility. The current and upcoming functionalities include:

Alt-Text Evaluation Algorithm:

    • Image and text Embeddings are utilized for comparing visual and textual semantics, ensuring a robust assessment.
    • Training on extensive datasets to enhance accuracy and relevance.
    • Detection of various Alt-Text violations, ranging from gross abuses (e.g., missing Alt-Text, placeholder text) to inadequate Alt-Text, with severity classification.

Recommendation System:

    • The algorithm recommends high-quality Alt-Text when the existing text is deemed grossly insufficient or inadequate.
    • Alt-text suggestions are tailored for individual images and consider the image’s context within the surrounding page or application.

Recent Updates:

    • Alt-Text for images has been successfully released into production, reflecting CX Score’s commitment to delivering accessible content.
    • Alt-Text for Links is currently in Beta and is anticipated to be released into production by the end of the year, further expanding the scope of accessibility improvements.

CX Score’s ongoing efforts in Alt-Text evaluation demonstrate its dedication to providing comprehensive solutions for enhancing web accessibility.

Could you provide technical insights into CX Score's GenAI-based Alt-Text evaluation, highlighting the algorithms used, data training methods, and the recent updates, including the release of Alt-Text for images and the upcoming Beta release for Alt-Text in Links?

CX Score leverages cutting-edge GenAI capabilities to assess Alt-Text for images thoroughly, combining advanced algorithms with continuous updates and expansions. The technical aspects of this approach include:

Alt-Text Evaluation Algorithm:

    • Embeddings Comparison: The algorithm compares image and text Embeddings, capturing semantics, to evaluate Alt-Text validity.
    • Extensive Training: High-level training on large datasets, encompassing diverse images and texts relevant to web pages.
    • Violation Detection: The algorithm identifies various Alt-Text violations, spanning from gross abuses (e.g., missing or placeholder Alt-Text) to nuanced assessments of insufficient Alt-Text, classified by severity.

Recommendation System:

    • Dynamic Recommendations: When the existing Alt-Text is deemed inadequate, the algorithm suggests high-quality alternatives.
    • Contextual Suggestions: Alt-Text recommendations are tailored for individual images and consider the contextual relevance within the surrounding page or application.

Recent Updates:

    • Production Release: Alt-Text for images has been successfully released into production, showcasing CX Score’s commitment to actionable accessibility solutions.
    • Upcoming Beta Release: Alt-Text for Links is currently in Beta, with plans for a production release by the end of the year, expanding accessibility enhancements to link elements.

These advancements underscore CX Score’s dedication to employing advanced AI technologies to improve web accessibility standards continuously.

Please find below a few examples of the Alt-Text violations (recommendations for remediation are also part of the violation summary) that were automatically detected by our GenAI algorithms on Prudential web-sites:

If reporting is extensive, it could slow down testing in that the tester must now review false positives.

The reports classify, allow filtering and sorting, deduplication, triaging and prioritization of violations by:

  • WCAG standards (2.0, 2.1, 2.2 and 3.0)
    • Note that future standards like 3.0 are disabled by default. However, we track these standards to give customers an early indication of changes that may be required in applications (especially if they are extensive)
  • Conformance Levels (A, AA, AAA, W3C Best Practices)
  • Principles (Perceivable, Operable, Understandable, Robust)
  • URLs, Elements, Virtual Pages
  • Severity (disability spectrum, Enterprise maturity)
  • Whitelist violations (our Synthetic User learns from your feedback)

Additionally, the Enterprise can customize the rule-set to exercise. We give you full power and control over the trade-off between Compliance and building a fully accessible digital experience.

Can you provide insights into the software's capabilities, particularly in the context of accessibility testing, and clarify any specific claims made during the demonstration or on the vendor's website? How does the software address challenge such as interpreting and validating image alt text, especially considering instances like CAPTCHA?

The software’s capabilities, especially in accessibility testing, are a critical aspect of consideration. To address concerns and provide clarity:

Alt-Text Interpretation:

    • The vendor initially made extensive claims regarding their software’s ability to interpret and validate image alt text. However, it’s important to note that some of these statements were retracted during discussions about challenges like CAPTCHA.

Combination of AI/LLM Models:

    • CX Score utilizes a combination of proprietary and trained Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Large Language Models (LLM) to deliver optimal results for accessibility validation. This approach involves leveraging advanced AI technologies to enhance the accuracy and effectiveness of the testing process.

Addressing CAPTCHA:

    • The specific challenge of CAPTCHA, which traditionally distinguishes between humans and machines, was acknowledged. While the software may not have been explicitly tested against CAPTCHA, it’s essential to consider evolving perspectives on the effectiveness of CAPTCHA in the context of advancing multimodal capabilities in AI.

External Reference:

    • Reference to an external source highlights CAPTCHA’s evolving landscape and the potential obsolescence of traditional tests in the face of multimodal AI capabilities.

This response aims to provide a balanced understanding of the software’s capabilities, acknowledging both the asserted strengths and areas that may require further exploration or verification.

In the context of accessibility testing, could you elaborate on the software's specific approaches to interpreting and validating image alt text? Additionally, considering the evolving landscape of CAPTCHA and the reference to its potential obsolescence with multimodal AI capabilities, how does the software align with or contribute to this paradigm shift? Are there ongoing tests or considerations regarding the software's compatibility with challenges like CAPTCHA?

Delving into the nuanced aspects of the software’s capabilities in accessibility testing:

Alt-Text Interpretation Strategies:

  • Details on the software’s specific methodologies and approaches for interpreting and validating image alt text. This may include insights into integrating AI/LLM models, highlighting the advancements contributing to accurate alt-text assessments.

Multimodal AI and CAPTCHA Paradigm Shift:

  • Further exploration of the software’s alignment with the evolving landscape of CAPTCHA. Given the potential obsolescence in the provided external source, how does the software contribute to or leverage multimodal AI capabilities in redefining the traditional CAPTCHA paradigm?

Testing Against CAPTCHA:

  • Clarification on whether the software has undergone specific tests or considerations regarding its compatibility with challenges like CAPTCHA. It is understanding the software’s stance on such challenges and any ongoing efforts to address or integrate advancements in this domain.

This advanced inquiry aims to garner detailed insights into the software’s technical approaches, strategic alignment with industry shifts, and proactive measures in addressing complex challenges within accessibility testing.

ADA Website accessibility compliance

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a landmark piece of legislation enacted in 1990 in the United States, aimed at prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities.

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are a set of technical standards and guidelines developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to ensure that web content is accessible to people with disabilities.

Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA)

Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) is a set of attributes that define ways to make web content and applications more accessible for people with disabilities.

Section 508 Accessibility compliance

History: Section 508 refers to a U.S. federal law that mandates federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology (EIT) accessible to people with disabilities.

EU Web Accessibility Directive

The EU Web Accessibility Directive is a legislative framework aimed at promoting web accessibility within the European Union.

EN 301 549

EN 301 549 is a European standard that lays out accessibility requirements for Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), ensuring that digital tools and services are accessible to people with disabilities.